Transmission and Distribution Co-Simulation with Possible Distribution Loops
A co-simulation algorithm for three-phase modeled distribution systems and sequence modeled transmission is developed. The approach is novel for combining looped distribution capability, i.e. alternative current paths between transmission system nodes via the distribution system, with the option to model transmission in three sequence detail instead of just positive sequence. This is achieved by placing equivalent branches in the transmission model and accounting for the loop currents. Additionally, we provide validation for co-simulation results against a full, combined three-phase model. This comparison allows to better analyze the strengths and weaknesses of different modeling choices.
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