CloudPoS: A Proof-of-Stake Consensus Design for Blockchain Integrated Cloud
Maintaining data provenance in cloud in a tamperresistant manner that cannot be breached by malicious parties is a necessity from the current security standpoint. Blockchain technology has emerged as a secure solution to store and share information by offering an immutable distributed ledger service. Its effectiveness hinges on the infrastructure supporting the distributed ledger and consensus protocol that governs the validity of entries in the Blockchain. Hence, Blockchain can be a potential candidate to implement data provenance provenance; however, traditional cryptocurrency-based consensus models become bottleneck in the cloud environment. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a Blockchain based data provenance architecture (BlockCloud) that incorporates a proof-of-stake (PoS)-based consensus protocol (CloudPoS) for securely recording the data operations occurring in cloud environment. The critical operational phases of the protocol are discussed in depth, which leverages the cloud user’s cyber infrastructure resources. A cloud-based testbed environment is created using a local cluster of physical machines managed by Xen hypervisor. Resource elasticity is enabled using Kubernetes setup that interacts with the dockerized containers, which emulate as peers in the Blockchain network. We then evaluate the effectiveness of the protocol in a simulated environment and conduct performance tests of the proposed consensus.
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